The Orange River System (ORS) is one of the most highly developed River Systems in Southern Africa. In September 2015, Namibia and South Africa, under the auspices of the PWC, commissioned the Noordoewer / Vioolsdrift Dam (NVD) Feasibility Study. The study investigated many possible options and in 2016 initially concluded that the optimal NVD would have a wall height of about 73m, with a storage capacity of 2,800 million m3 and would be of concrete faced rock fill type (CFRD).
The project objectives are to:
• Increase the long-term sustainable yield of the Orange River System
• Provide for the projected growth in water requirements in the Orange River SystemImprove water supply and sanitation
• Compensate for the impact of the implementation of the Reserve on the yield of the Orange River System
• Provide a re-regulation storage on the Lower Orange River to allow for releases to be made to correct the seasonal distribution of flows in accordance with the riverine Ecological Water Requirements (EWRs) in the Lower Orange River.
Water transfer from Lesotho to South Africa, for water supply to South Africa and hydropower generation in Lesotho. The project objectives are to:
• To provide revenue to Lesotho by transferring water from the catchment of the Senqu/Orange river in Lesotho to meet the growing demand for water in the RSA’s major industrial and population centres
• To avail an increased assurance of water supply for the regional economic hub in South Africa • To generate hydro-electric power for Lesotho
• To provide the opportunity to undertake ancillary developments such as the provision of water for irrigation and potable water supply
• To promote the general development of the remote and underdeveloped mountain regions of Lesotho.
The drastic decline in freshwater availability in the Lake Chad Basin has resulted in a 95% decrease in the volume of the lake from 1963 to date. At the same time, the degradation of the Lake Chad ecosystem following the droughts of 1973-74 and 1985-86 leads to increased erosion of the watershed and silting of Lake Chad and its main tributaries, the Chari and Logone rivers. The actual rate of siltation and sedimentation of Lake Chad is unknown. The project objectives are to:
• Undertake in-depth technical studies on silting, bathymetric surveys, physico-chemical analysis of Lake Chad sediments and invasive plants as well as Lake Chad waters
• Develop a sediment dredging programme for de-sanding, the fight against harmful plant species and the de-silting of Lake Chad in order to have a better distribution of water resources between the northern basin and the southern basin of the lake
• Restore navigation through Lake Chad and revive the economic activities of the riparian communities
• Develop landing stages and Restore fishing and irrigated agriculture along Lake Chad with the objective of combating poverty.
The proposed Dawa Dam will on River Dawa. The site is located approximately 20 km upstream of Rhamu Dimtu town in Mandera County of Kenya and 2 km upstream of Boni centre in Ethiopia. The estimated dam height is about 90 mwith a capacity of approximately 4.5 Billion M³ and can be utilised to generate 8.2 MW of hydropower. The project objectives are:
• Provide irrigation water, hydropower generation, flood mitigation, and a source for drinking water for livestock and human beings
• Protect water resources, storing the floods for use during the dry season
• Fishing for livelihood
• Irrigation potential, changing from peasant irrigation to modern irrigation.
The idea of building the Noumbiel dam was born in the 1970s to strengthening cooperation between the Republic of Ghana and the Burkina Faso formerly called Upper Volta. Since then, several negotiations have taken place and focused mainly on the purpose of the work that Ghana wants hydro-agricultural and Burkina hydroelectric. The project objectives are:
• Poverty reduction, economic growth, strengthening resilience to climate change, promoting gender and improving the living conditions of populations living both in the area under direct influence
• It will enable the land enhancement, access to electrical energy, Drinking Water Supply (AEP) and the creation of productive activities in the field of fishing, livestock and tourism for the surrounding area, as well as the strengthening of cooperation between the populations established there
• Multiplier effects, favorable to the creation of development opportunities and the opening up of the region